Infectious Diseases A to Z


Even though getting a flu shot will not completely eliminate your chances of developing the flu, it will certainly reduce the risk. Each year, a new vaccine made from inactivated influenza viruses is formulated. Since it may take the immune system time to respond to the vaccination, the inactivated vaccine should be given 6 to 8 weeks before flu season begins in order to prevent infection or reduce the severity of the illness. The identification of a condition as a disease, rather than as simply a variation of human structure or function, can have significant social or economic implications.

The disease is caused by a bacillus (rod-shaped) bacterium known as Mycobacterium leprae. Dengue fever is an infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and caused by any of four related dengue viruses. This disease used to be called “break-bone” fever because it sometimes causes severe joint and muscle pain that feels like bones are breaking. The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system first described by NIH scientists in the mid-1990s that affects both children and adults. In ALPS, unusually high numbers of white blood cells called lymphocytes accumulate in the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen and can lead to the enlargement of these organs.

The social implication of viewing aging as a disease could be profound, though this classification is not yet widespread. Sickness confers the social legitimization of certain benefits, such as illness benefits, work avoidance, and being looked after by others. A person who responds to a dreaded disease, such as cancer, in a culturally acceptable fashion may be publicly and privately honored with higher social status.

Finally, the disease may be caused by some agent external to the organism, such as a chemical that is a toxic agent. In this case, the disease is non-communicable; that is, it affects only the individual organism exposed to it. The external agent may be itself a living organism capable of multiplying within the host and subsequently infecting other organisms; in this case, the disease is said to be communicable. Britannica Explains In these videos, Britannica explains a variety of topics and answers frequently asked questions. Anyone, 6 months of age and older, is eligible to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Avoid diuretics, like caffeine and alcohol, that contribute to fluid loss.

Sudden Cardiac Death in AthletesHow familiar are you with the risk factors for and common causes of sudden cardiac death in male and female athletes? Healthdirect’s information and advice are developed and managed within a rigorous clinical governance framework. This website is certified by the Health On The Net foundation, the standard for trustworthy health information. All types of neoplasms, including benign, potentially malignant, or malignant cancer growths. The Health Categories are based on the World Health Organisation International Classification of Diseases codes which cover all areas of disease and ill health. E.g. studies of normal hepatic function and studies of liver cirrhosis will both be classified into the Oral and Gastrointestinal categories.

A condition may be considered a disease in some cultures or eras but not in others. For example, obesity can represent wealth and abundance and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. Epilepsy is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the Hmong people. How a society responds to diseases is the subject of medical conditions The European HMDB data was submitted by European countries to the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. When a disease is caused by a pathogenic organism (e.g., when malaria is caused by Plasmodium), one should not confuse the pathogen with the disease itself.

HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus that causes AIDS and can be transmitted during sexual intercourse; by sharing syringes; or perinatally during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Since the first AIDS cases were reported in 1981, HIV/AIDS has been one of humanity’s deadliest and most persistent epidemics. Although extraordinary progress has been made in the fight against new HIV cases and AIDS deaths, the HIV pandemic continues. To search for patient organizations and other pages related to this topic, use the Advanced Search function at the top right corner of the page. Congenital Anomalies of the Genitourinary SystemDuring the elegant and complex development of the genitourinary system, a variety of congenital abnormalities can arise. Britannica Quiz Medical Terms and Pioneers Quiz Who discovered the major blood groups?